Natural resources

We rely on natural sources of water such as reservoirs, rivers and boreholes, from which abstraction licences permit us to take water in a safe and sustainable way to be treated and supplied to customers. We rely on natural watercourses to take wastewater back into the environment after extensive cleaning. We generate renewable energy from the sun and wind, and extract bioresources from wastewater that we break down into biogas (which is used to generate renewable energy) and biosolids (which are treated to provide a high-quality fertiliser for farmers).

Coping with severe dry periods requires action in relation to supply (ensuring we have resilient water resources and infrastructure to move water efficiently around the region) and demand (encouraging and supporting customers to use water more efficiently). In periods of heavy rainfall we need to deal with excess surface water drainage and minimise the risk of sewer flooding, pollution and spills.

How we manage this key resource

Much of the water we abstract originates on land before running off into the bodies of water. We own and manage large areas of this land, much of which is managed by tenant farmers, or in partnership with other organisations such as the RSPB and Wildlife Trusts, and we focus on ensuring it is well managed to improve water quality and help protect habitats and species that live there.

Our Systems Thinking approach is central to how we manage water supply. We have an integrated supply zone covering most of our region, our West-East Link Main allows us to transfer water between Manchester and Liverpool, and where there is a potential shortfall we can bring more supplies online to meet demand. 46 per cent of households in our region now have water meters installed, and we encourage customers to save water by raising awareness, sharing tips, and providing free water-saving devices. Traditional interventions to flooding, such as storage tanks and enlarging sewers, are costly and subject to space constraints. We are innovating with new sustainable drainage solutions by working with partners to transform hard grey areas into living planted places. We use integrated catchment solutions, working with others to improve the lakes, rivers and coastal waters in our region, and often using the natural environment as part of the solution. We manage our own woodland in a sustainable way to protect water quality, conservation, access, recreation and timber.

Our activities produce various wastes, including sludges, which we manage in a sustainable way with less than 2 per cent going to landfill. We use recycled products where practical, and are working to reduce our use of plastics and raw materials to minimise our environmental impact.


Our people are the face of our company and essential in delivering our purpose. We believe the most effective decision-making comes from a diverse range of people who feel encouraged to share their views, and that having a skilled, engaged and motivated team of employees, suppliers and contractors is fundamental to the performance we deliver.

Rewarding employees well has been shown to enhance quality of work, increase employee retention, and reduce absenteeism, as well as providing societal benefits. Employee retention helps ensure efficient and effective training and higher levels of performance.

How we manage this key resource

We support thousands of jobs in the North West, including graduate and apprenticeship programmes, helping to secure a legacy for the future in our region. We are committed to paying our suppliers on time and are a signatory to the Prompt Payment Code, and we provide our employees with competitive wages and benefits, an attractive pension offering, and the opportunity to join the employee healthcare scheme and our share incentive plan.

We provide comprehensive training and development opportunities, including digital skills to help with our Systems Thinking approach and enable remote working where practical, which has become more important this year with restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic. We promote diversity and equal opportunity to drive a comprehensive and balanced skill set, and we recruit and promote employees on the basis of merit. Read more about diversity in the Corporate governance report. We are committed to protecting the health, safety and wellbeing of our people, and have been awarded the workplace wellbeing charter.

We measure employee engagement through an annual survey, and regularly achieve results higher than the UK norm. We monitor and measure employee performance through annual reviews, and employees at all levels of the company participate in the bonus scheme, so they benefit from company success. The bonus performance measures are the same for all employees as those for the executive directors, and can be found in the Corporate governance report.


Our network assets and treatment works are essential to delivering our services for customers and protecting public health, and our energy assets enable us to generate renewable energy, which helps reduce costs and minimise our environmental impact. It is important we have the right systems and procedures in place to monitor and control our assets efficiently and effectively.

Many of our assets are very long term in nature, such as our impounding reservoirs that can last hundreds of years. We must invest to maintain these assets in good condition so they can continue to provide for customers in the long term. We need to make improvements to ensure we can meet the needs of a growing population, and increasingly high quality standards and tighter environmental consents driven by our quality and environmental regulators.

How we manage this key resource

Since privatisation the significant investment we have made in our assets has provided substantial benefits to customers, including reduced supply interruptions, reduced sewer flooding incidents, and improved water quality, and we expect to continue with a substantial investment programme for the foreseeable future as current environmental legislation requires continued investment. We plan for the long term to help us understand where and when we need to invest in our assets, and we monitor the condition, performance and health of our assets.

We manage our assets in a holistic way that seeks to minimise whole life costs, and we embrace new technology and innovation, which is at the heart of our Systems Thinking approach. This helps us deliver efficient total expenditure (totex) without compromising on quality of service or long-term resilience, saving future operating costs and reducing future customer bills.

We saw in AMP6 the benefit of accelerating our investment to deliver improvements sooner, and we plan to take the same approach in AMP7, bringing forward some of our capital spend earlier in the five-year period. During the Covid-19 pandemic, we have halted non-essential work but we are continuing with construction projects where we are able to do so safely for our employees and those with whom they are in contact.

Our assets and infrastructure projects can affect people who live nearby. We consult with these communities in the planning stage and work hard to minimise odours from our wastewater treatment works and other impacts.


As a result of the long-term nature of our assets and the need to spread the cost between the generations of customers that benefit from them, it is necessary to raise financing in order to fund investment in building, maintaining and improving our assets, networks and services.

It is important that we are able to raise finance when needed to preserve adequate liquidity, and that we manage financial risks such as our exposure to movements in interest rates and inflation, to ensure we maintain long-term financial resilience.

How we manage this key resource

We maintain a robust capital structure, with a responsible mix of equity and debt financing. We monitor our performance against required thresholds for key credit ratios to help us maintain strong and stable investment grade credit ratings. This gives us efficient access to debt capital markets across the economic cycle.

We maintain relationships with a diverse range of banks and access to a broad and diverse range of sources of financing in a number of markets, across which we seek the best relative value when issuing new debt. We periodically refresh our EMTN programme to enable efficient debt issuance under pre-agreed contractual terms, and the board delegates authority to the CFO, allowing us to respond quickly to attractive financing opportunities. This helps us to consistently raise efficient financing at a cost cheaper than many of our peers. We aim to avoid a concentration of refinancing in any one year, and fund long term where possible. Our debt portfolio has a very long average life, and we monitor liquidity forecasts with a policy of having resources available to cover the next 15–24 months of projected cash flows to ensure forward funding needs are met.

We have clear and transparent hedging policies covering credit, liquidity, interest rate, inflation and currency risk, and these are aligned with the regulatory model.

Read more about these policies in the Notes to the financial statements – appendices

Our prudent approach to managing financial risks is one of our competitive advantages, as set out in Our competitive advantages.